Publicações da FAO
(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Organização das Nações Unidas para Alimentação e Agricultura)
relacionadas às questões de segurança alimentar e ao combate à fome.
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Trabalhando pela Fome Zero
Você sabia que existem mais de 815 milhões de pessoas no mundo que dormem com fome, enquanto 1,9 bilhão de pessoas estão acima do peso?
O mundo estabeleceu um desafio para alcançar o Fome Zero e uma melhor nutrição até 2030. Mas os governos não podem fazer isso sozinhos – todos nós temos um papel a desempenhar.
Venha comigo na jornada Fome Zero para descobrir o que cada um de nós – governos, produtores rurais, empresas e o público em geral – precisam fazer para alcançar esse objetivo. Saiba como você pode se tornar parte da Geração Fome Zero!
SOFA 2021 | Making agrifood systems more resilient to shocks:
Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic
FAO’s The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2021 report exposes the fragility
of our agrifood systems and offers solutions on how to deal with sudden shocks
Countries need to make their agrifood systems more resilient to sudden shocks of the kind witnessed during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has emerged as a major driver of the latest rise in global hunger estimates. According to a new report published today by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), without proper preparation unpredictable shocks will continue to undermine agrifood systems.
This year’s The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) report by FAO is entitled “Making agrifood systems more resilient to shocks and stresses.” It provides an assessment of the ability of national agrifood systems to respond to or recover readily from shocks and stressors. It also offers guidance to governments on how they can improve resilience.
Today there are approximately 3 billion people who cannot afford a healthy diet. The SOFA 2021 report estimates that an additional 1 billion people would join their ranks if a shock reduced incomes by one-third. Moreover, food costs could increase for up to 845 million people if a disruption to critical transport links were to occur. The report defines shocks as “short-term deviations from long-term trends that have substantial negative effects on a system, people’s state of well-being, assets, livelihoods, safety and ability to withstand future shocks.” Examples include extreme weather events and surges in plant and animal diseases and pests.
Even before COVID-19 broke out, the world was not on track to meet its commitment to end hunger and malnutrition by 2030. And while food production and supply chains have historically been vulnerable to climate extremes, armed conflicts or increases in global food prices, the frequency and severity of such shocks is on the rise.
The report’s publication could not be timelier.
“The pandemic highlighted both the resilience and the weakness of our agrifood systems,” said FAO Director-General QU Dongyu at a virtual event for the launch, which also featured a presentation by FAO Chief Economist Maximo Torero Cullen and a panel discussion with policymakers and academics.
The world’s agrifood systems – the complex web of activities involved in the production of food and non-food agricultural products, as well as their storage, processing, transportation, distribution and consumption, produce 11 billion tonnes of food a year and employ billions of people, directly or indirectly. The urgency of strengthening their capacity to endure shocks cannot be stressed enough.
The report also presents country-level indicators of the resilience of agrifood systems in more than a hundred countries, by analysing factors such as transport networks, trade flows and the availability of healthy and varied diets. While low-income countries generally face much bigger challenges, its findings show that middle-income countries are also at risk. In Brazil, for example, 60 percent of the country’s export value comes from just one trading partner. This leaves it with fewer options if a shock hits a partner country. Even high-income countries such as Australia and Canada are at risk from a shock because of the long distances involved in the distribution of food. For nearly half of the countries analysed by FAO experts, the closure of critical network links would increase local transport time by 20 percent or more, thereby increasing costs and food prices for consumers.
Based on the evidence of the report, FAO recommends that governments make resilience in agrifood systems a strategic part of their responses to ongoing and future challenges.
The key here is diversification – of input sources, production, markets and supply chains, as well as of actors – since diversity creates multiple pathways for absorbing shocks. Supporting the development of small and medium agrifood enterprises, cooperatives, consortia and clusters helps maintain diversity in domestic agrifood value chains.
Another key factor is connectivity. Well-connected agrifood networks overcome disruptions faster by shifting sources of supply and channels for transport, marketing, inputs and labour.
Finally, enhancing the resilience capacities of vulnerable households is critical to ensure a world free from hunger. This can be done through improved access to assets, to diversified sources of income and social protection programmes in the event of shocks.
“The SOFA report reflects FAO’s efforts aimed at increasing resilience and sets out new indicators to help Members measure the resilience capacity of their agrifood systems and identify gaps for improvement,” Qu said.
SOFI 2021 | UN report: Pandemic year marked by spike in world hunger
Africa posting biggest jump. World at critical juncture, must act now for 2030 turnaround
There was a dramatic worsening of world hunger in 2020, the United Nations said today – much of it likely related to the fallout of COVID-19. While the pandemic’s impact has yet to be fully mapped*, a multi-agency report estimates that around a tenth of the global population – up to 811 million people – were undernourished last year. The number suggests it will take a tremendous effort for the world to honour its pledge to end hunger by 2030.
This year’s edition of The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World is the first global assessment of its kind in the pandemic era. The report is jointly published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the UN World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO).
Previous editions had already put the world on notice that the food security of millions – many children among them – was at stake. “Unfortunately, the pandemic continues to expose weaknesses in our food systems, which threaten the lives and livelihoods of people around the world,” the heads of the five UN agencies** write in this year’s Foreword.
They go on to warn of a “critical juncture,” even as they pin fresh hopes on increased diplomatic momentum. “This year offers a unique opportunity for advancing food security and nutrition through transforming food systems with the upcoming UN Food Systems Summit, the Nutrition for Growth Summit and the COP26 on climate change.” “The outcome of these events,” the five add, “will go on to shape the […] second half of the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition” – a global policy commitment yet to hit its stride.
The numbers in detail
Already in the mid-2010s, hunger had started creeping upwards, dashing hopes of irreversible decline. Disturbingly, in 2020 hunger shot up in both absolute and proportional terms, outpacing population growth: some 9.9 percent of all people are estimated to have been undernourished last year, up from 8.4 percent in 2019.
More than half of all undernourished people (418 million) live in Asia; more than a third (282 million) in Africa; and a smaller proportion (60 million) in Latin America and the Caribbean. But the sharpest rise in hunger was in Africa, where the estimated prevalence of undernourishment – at 21 percent of the population – is more than double that of any other region.
On other measurements too, the year 2020 was sombre. Overall, more than 2.3 billion people (or 30 percent of the global population) lacked year-round access to adequate food: this indicator – known as the prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity – leapt in one year as much in as the preceding five combined. Gender inequality deepened: for every 10 food-insecure men, there were 11 food-insecure women in 2020 (up from 10.6 in 2019).
Malnutrition persisted in all its forms, with children paying a high price: in 2020, over 149 million under-fives are estimated to have been stunted, or too short for their age; more than 45 million – wasted, or too thin for their height; and nearly 39 million – overweight.*** A full three-billion adults and children remained locked out of healthy diets, largely due to excessive costs. Nearly a third of women of reproductive age suffer from anaemia. Globally, despite progress in some areas – more infants, for example, are being fed exclusively on breast milk – the world is not on track to achieve targets for any nutrition indicators by 2030.
Other hunger and malnutrition drivers
In many parts of the world, the pandemic has triggered brutal recessions and jeopardized access to food. Yet even before the pandemic, hunger was spreading; progress on malnutrition lagged. This was all the more so in nations affected by conflict, climate extremes or other economic downturns, or battling high inequality – all of which the report identifies as major drivers of food insecurity, which in turn interact.****
On current trends, The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World estimates that Sustainable Development Goal 2 (Zero Hunger by 2030) will be missed by a margin of nearly 660 million people. Of these 660 million, some 30 million may be linked to the pandemic’s lasting effects.
What can (still) be done
As outlined in last year’s report, transforming food systems is essential to achieve food security, improve nutrition and put healthy diets within reach of all. This year’s edition goes further to outline six “transformation pathways”. These, the authors say, rely on a “coherent set of policy and investment portfolios” to counteract the hunger and malnutrition drivers.
Depending on the particular driver (or combination of drivers) confronting each country, the report urges policymakers to:
- Integrate humanitarian, development and peacebuilding policies in conflict areas – for example, through social protection measures to prevent families from selling meagre assets in exchange for food;
- Scale up climate resilience across food systems – for example, by offering smallholder farmers wide access to climate risk insurance and forecast-based financing;
- Strengthen the resilience of the most vulnerable to economic adversity – for example, through in-kind or cash support programmes to lessen the impact of pandemic-style shocks or food price volatility;
- Intervene along supply chains to lower the cost of nutritious foods – for example, by encouraging the planting of biofortified crops or making it easier for fruit and vegetable growers to access markets;
- Tackle poverty and structural inequalities – for example, by boosting food value chains in poor communities through technology transfers and certification programmes;
- Strengthen food environments and changing consumer behaviour – for example, by eliminating industrial trans fats and reducing the salt and sugar content in the food supply, or protecting children from the negative impact of food marketing.
The report also calls for an “enabling environment of governance mechanisms and institutions” to make transformation possible. It enjoins policymakers to consult widely; to empower women and youth; and to expand the availability of data and new technologies. Above all, the authors urge, the world must act now – or watch the drivers of hunger and malnutrition recur with growing intensity in coming years, long after the shock of the pandemic has passed.
* To reflect the added uncertainty induced by the pandemic, this year’s edition for the first time presents a range (720 million to 811 million) rather than a single headline number. For regional breakdowns, the number of 768 million – the mid-range estimate – is used. Whether the lower, middle or upper value of the range is considered, the annual increase over 2019’s mid-range number of 650 million is substantial. At the higher end, this increase is a massive 161 million. (The entire historical series is revised annually in line with new data.)
** For FAO – Qu Dongyu, Director-General; for IFAD – Gilbert F. Houngbo, President; for UNICEF – Henrietta H. Fore, Executive Director; for WFP – David Beasley, Executive Director; for WHO – Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General.
*** Social distancing rules made nutrition data exceptionally hard to collect in 2020. Some numbers – especially for wasting in under-fives – may be higher than these estimates.
**** The more drivers a country has, the worse the undernourishment and malnutrition, the greater the food insecurity, and the more prohibitive the cost of healthy diets to its citizens.
Superação da Fome e da Pobreza Rural
A erradicação da fome e a diminuição da pobreza e das desigualdades sociais têm rendido ao Brasil amplo reconhecimento internacional. Essas conquistas têm suscitado grande interesse pelas bem-sucedidas políticas públicas brasileiras de segurança alimentar e nutricional, dentre as quais se destacam o Programa Fome Zero, o Programa Bolsa Família e o Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (Pronaf). O interesse de muitos países, frequentemente, se traduz em demandas concretas para conhecer detalhes a respeito da elaboração e da operacionalização dos programas e das políticas brasileiras de inclusão social. A cooperação Sul-Sul trilateral desempenha, nesse contexto, função primordial, ao promover o intercâmbio horizontal, entre países em desenvolvimento, de boas práticas na área da segurança alimentar e nutricional. Bom exemplo disso é o “Programa Brasil-FAO para Promoção da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional e Redução da Pobreza em Benefício de Países em Desenvolvimento ”, que tem permitido o compartilhamento das experiências brasileiras na América Latina, no Caribe e na África. Os projetos desenvolvidos no âmbito do referido programa colaboram com a segurança alimentar e nutricional da população mais vulnerável dessas regiões, bem como com a integração de políticas direcionadas à redução da pobreza extrema.
Food systems in Latin America and the Caribbean
Challenges in a post-pandemic world
For the International Centre for Sustainable Development (CIDES) and the City of Knowledge Foundation (FCDS), the alliance with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) constitutes a space to strengthen sustainable nutrition culture and raise regional awareness about the importance of its integration into the public and territorial policies of Latin American and Caribbean countries. In the case of Panama – the work base of CIDES/FCDS and the FAO Subregional Office for Mesoamerica –, cooperation between our institutions has been decisive in the organization and development of the National Conferences on Sustainable Development (ENADES), as well as in the processes of formulation and implementation of public policies on food and nutritional security.
The Letter of Agreement for the provision of services to examine trends in Agriculture and Food Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean towards 2030 stems from this spirit of cooperation. It establishes the framework for the publication of this book.
The book has been prepared by authors from different international organizations – including FAO, IFPRI, UNCTAD and ECLAC, as well as legislators and academics from prestigious Latin American universities – seeking to foster reflections for the Global Food Systems Summit, to be held in September 2021. It contextualizes the region’s food systems within a post COVID-19 pandemic scenario and raises new challenges (and opportunities) for policy makers, decision makers, the private sector, and the general public.
Likewise, it offers important reflections on sustainability, from production to consumption, with the call to promote better governance of the global and regional food system. In order to face what some authors have deemed “the Syndemic of the century”, the participation of companies, research centres, academia, NGOs, government agencies and international organizations will be
We reiterate our gratitude to the authors and editors of this publication. We hope that it becomes a reference for the formulation of food policies in the countries of the region.
Good reading to all.
Juan Moreno Lobón
Executive Director, CIDES
Adoniram Sanches Peraci
Subregional Coordinator for Mesoamerica, FAO