Publicações da FAO
(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Organização das Nações Unidas para Alimentação e Agricultura)
relacionadas às questões de segurança alimentar e ao combate à fome.

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Conteúdo do Acervo FAO


Todos os anos, este é o relatório da FAO mais intensamente examinado. O SOFI apresenta o número de pessoas subnutridas em todo o mundo, ao mesmo tempo que defende estratégias contra a fome e a subnutrição. Após a publicação do relatório global, uma grande quantidade de estatísticas é desagregada em relatórios regionais. O SOFI é divulgados desde de 1999 em parceria da Organização das Nações Unidas para Alimentação e Agricultura (FAO), Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância (UNICEF), Programa Mundial de Alimentos (PMA | WFP), Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS | WHO) e Fundo Internacional de Desenvolvimento Agrícola (FIDA)


SOFI 2023 | Urbanization, Agrifood Systems, Transformation and Healthy Diets across the Rural-Urban continuum

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2023

This report brings our organizations together again to reaffirm that, if we do not redouble and better target our efforts, our goal of ending hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition in all its forms by 2030 will remain out of reach. Although the world is recovering from the global pandemic, this recovery is occurring unevenly across and within countries. On top of this, the world is grappling with the consequences of the ongoing war in Ukraine, which has shaken food and energy markets.

Agrifood systems remain highly vulnerable to shocks and disruptions arising from conflict, climate variability and extremes, and economic contraction. These factors, combined with growing inequities, continue to challenge the capacity of agrifood systems to deliver nutritious, safe, and affordable diets for all. These major drivers of food insecurity and malnutrition are our “new normal.” We have no option but to redouble our efforts to transform agrifood systems and leverage them towards reaching the Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG 2) targets.

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          The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2023
          El Estado de la Seguridad Alimentaria y la Nutrición en el Mundo 2023

Global hunger is still far above pre-pandemic levels. It is estimated that between 690 and 783 million people in the world faced hunger in 2022. This is 122 million more people than before the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, the increase in global hunger observed in the last two years has stalled, and in 2022, there were about 3.8 million fewer people suffering from hunger than in 2021. The economic recovery from the pandemic has contributed to this, but there is no doubt that the modest progress has been undermined by rising food and energy prices magnified by the war in Ukraine. There is no room for complacency, though, as hunger is still on the rise throughout Africa, Western Asia, and the Caribbean.

No doubt, achieving the SDG target of Zero Hunger by 2030 poses a daunting challenge. Indeed, it is projected that almost 600 million people will still be facing hunger in 2030. This is 119 million more people than in a scenario in which neither the COVID-19 pandemic nor the

SOFI 2022 | Repourposing Food and Agricultural Policies to make Healthy Diets more affordable

The challenges to ending hunger, food insecurity, and all forms of malnutrition continue to grow. The COVID-19 pandemic has further highlighted the fragilities in our agrifood systems and the inequalities in our societies, driving further increases in world hunger and severe food insecurity. Despite global progress, trends in child undernutrition – including stunting and wasting, deficiencies in essential micronutrients, and overweight and obesity in children – remain of great concern. Additionally, maternal anemia and obesity among adults continue to be alarming.

The most recent evidence available suggests that the number of people unable to afford a healthy diet around the world rose by 112 million to almost 3.1 billion, reflecting the impacts of rising consumer food prices during the pandemic. This number could be even greater once data are available to account for income losses in 2020. The ongoing war in Ukraine is disrupting supply chains and further affecting prices of grain, fertilizer, and energy. In the first half of 2022, this resulted in further food price increases. At the same time, more frequent and severe extreme climate events are disrupting supply chains, especially in low-income countries.

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          The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2022
          El Estado de la Seguridad Alimentaria y la Nutrición en el Mundo 2022

Looking forward, the gains made in reducing the prevalence of child stunting by one-third in the previous two decades – translating into 55 million fewer children with stunting – are under threat from the triple crises of climate, conflict, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Without intensified efforts, the number of children with wasting will only increase.

This report repeatedly highlights the intensification of these major drivers of food insecurity and malnutrition: conflict, climate extremes, and economic shocks, combined with growing inequalities. The issue at stake is not whether adversities will continue to occur but how we must take bolder action to build resilience against future shocks. While last year’s report highlighted the pathways to transform agrifood systems, the reality is that this is easier said than done. Global economic growth prospects for 2022 have been revised downward significantly; hence,

SOFI 2021 | Transforming Food Systems for Food Security, improved Nutrition and affordable Healthy Diets for all

The world is at a critical juncture: it is very different from where it was six years ago when it committed to the goal of ending hunger, food insecurity, and all forms of malnutrition by 2030. At the time, while we understood that the challenges were significant, we were also optimistic that with the right transformative approaches, past progress could be accelerated at scale to put us on track to achieve that goal. Nonetheless, the past four editions of this report revealed a humbling reality. The world has not been generally progressing towards either Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 2.1, ensuring access to safe, nutritious, and sufficient food for all people all year round, or SDG Target 2.2, eradicating all forms of malnutrition.

Last year’s report stressed that the COVID-19 pandemic was having a devastating impact on the world’s economy, triggering an unprecedented recession not seen since the Second World War, and that the food security and nutrition status of millions of people, including children, would deteriorate if we did not take swift action. Unfortunately, the pandemic continues to expose weaknesses in our food systems, which threaten the lives and livelihoods of people around the world, particularly the most vulnerable and those living in fragile contexts.

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The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2021 (Inglês)
          El Estado de la Seguridad Alimentaria y la Nutrición en el Mundo 2021 (Espanhol)

This year, this report estimates that between 720 and 811 million people in the world faced hunger in 2020 – as many as 161 million more than in 2019. Nearly 2.37 billion people did not have access to adequate food in 2020 – an increase of 320 million people in just one year. No region of the world has been spared. The high cost of healthy diets and persistently high levels of poverty and income inequality continue to keep healthy diets out of reach for around 3 billion people in every region of the world. Moreover, new analysis in this report shows that the increase in the unaffordability of healthy diets is associated with higher levels of moderate or severe food insecurity.

While it is not yet possible to fully quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, we are concerned by the many millions of children under 5 years of age who were affected by stunting (149.2 million), wasting (45.4 million), or overweight (38.9 million).

SOFI 2020 | Transforming Food Systems for affordable Healthy Diets

Five years after the world committed to ending hunger, food insecurity, and all forms of malnutrition, we are still off track to achieve this objective by 2030. Data tell us that the world is progressing neither towards SDG target 2.1, of ensuring access to safe, nutritious, and sufficient food for all people all year round, nor towards target 2.2, of eradicating all forms of malnutrition.

There are many threats to progress. The 2017 and 2018 editions of this report showed that conflict and climate variability and extremes undermine efforts to end hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition. In 2019, the report showed that economic slowdowns and downturns also undercut these efforts. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as unprecedented Desert Locust outbreaks in Eastern Africa, are obscuring economic prospects in ways no one could have anticipated, and the situation may only get worse if we do not act urgently and take unprecedented action.

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          The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2020
          El Estado de la Seguridad Alimentaria y la Nutrición en el Mundo 2020 

The most recent estimate for 2019 shows that prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, almost 690 million people, or 8.9 percent of the global population, were undernourished. This estimate is based on new data on population, food supply, and more importantly, new household survey data that enabled the revision of the inequality of food consumption for 13 countries, including China. Revising the undernourishment estimate for China going back to the year 2000 resulted in a significantly lower number of undernourished people worldwide. This is because China has one-fifth of the global population. Despite this, the trend reported in past editions of this report still stands: since 2014, the number of hungry people worldwide has been slowly rising.

The new estimate for 2019 has revealed that an additional 60 million people have become affected by hunger since 2014. If this trend continues, the number of undernourished people will exceed 840 million by 2030. Hence, the world is not on track to achieve Zero Hunger, even without the negative effects that COVID-19 will likely have on hunger.

SOFI 2019 | Safeguarding against economic slowdowns and downturns

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development puts forward a transformational vision, recognizing that our world is changing and bringing with it new challenges that must be overcome if we are to live in a world without hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition in any of its forms.

The world population has grown steadily, with most people now living in urban areas. Technology has evolved at a dizzying pace, while the economy has become increasingly interconnected and globalized. Many countries, however, have not witnessed sustained growth as part of this new economy. The world economy as a whole is not growing as much as expected. Conflict and instability have increased and become more intractable, spurring greater population displacement. Climate change and increasing climate variability and extremes are affecting agricultural productivity, food production, and natural resources, impacting food systems and rural livelihoods, including a decline in the number of farmers. All of this has led to major shifts in the way food is produced, distributed, and consumed worldwide, leading to new food security, nutrition, and health challenges.

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          The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2019
          El Estado de la Seguridad Alimentaria y la Nutrición en el Mundo 2019

This is the third year that we have jointly produced The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World. It reaffirms our commitment to working together to overcome these emerging challenges and free the world from hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition.

Recent editions of the report showed that the decline in hunger the world had enjoyed for over a decade was at an end, and that hunger was again on the rise. This year, the report shows that the global level of the prevalence of undernourishment has stabilized; however, the absolute number of undernourished people continues to increase, albeit slowly.

More than 820 million people in the world are still hungry today, underscoring the immense challenge of achieving the Zero Hunger target by 2030. Hunger is rising in almost all subregions of Africa and, to a lesser extent, in Latin America and Western Asia.

SOFI 2017 | Building resilience for Peace and Food Security

The transformational vision of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development calls on all countries and stakeholders to work together to end hunger and prevent all forms of malnutrition by 2030. This ambition can only be fulfilled if agriculture and food systems become sustainable so that food supplies are stable and all people have access to adequate nutrition and health. The start of the 2030 Agenda coincided with the launch of the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016–2025), adding impetus to these commitments by providing a time-bound, cohesive framework for action.

This year’s edition of The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World marks the beginning of a new era in monitoring the progress made towards achieving a world without hunger and malnutrition within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Specifically, the report will henceforth monitor progress towards both the targets of ending hunger (SDG Target 2.1) and all forms of malnutrition (SDG Target 2.2). It will also include thematic analyses of how food security and nutrition are related to progress on other SDG targets. Given the broadened scope to include a focus on nutrition, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) have joined the traditional partnership of FAO, IFAD, and WFP in preparing this annual report. We hope our expanded partnership will result in a more comprehensive and integral understanding of what it will take to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition and in more-integrated actions to achieve this critical goal.

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          The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2017
          El Estado de la Seguridad Alimentaria y la Nutrición en el Mundo 2017

The challenges we face are significant. As shown in Part 1 of the report, a key worrisome finding is that after a prolonged decline, the most recent estimates indicate that global hunger increased in 2016 and now affects 815 million people. Moreover, although still well below levels of a decade ago, the percentage of the global population estimated to be suffering from hunger also increased in 2016. In parts of the world, this recent surge in hunger reached an extreme level, with a famine declared in areas of South Sudan in early 2017 and alerts of a high risk of famine issued for three other contexts (northeast Nigeria, Somalia, and Yemen). In 2016, the food security situation deteriorated sharply in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, South-Eastern Asia, and Western Asia.


SOFI 2015 | Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress

This year’s annual State of Food Insecurity in the World report takes stock of the progress made towards achieving the internationally established hunger targets and reflects on what needs to be done as we transition to the new post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda.

United Nations member states have made two major commitments to tackle world hunger. The first was at the World Food Summit (WFS) in Rome in 1996, when 182 governments committed “…to eradicate hunger in all countries, with an immediate view to reducing the number of undernourished people to half their present level no later than 2015.” The second was the formulation of the First Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1), established in 2000 by the United Nations members, which includes among its targets “cutting by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by 2015.”

In this report, we review progress made since 1990 for every country and region, as well as for the world as a whole. First, the good news: overall, the commitment to halve the percentage of hungry people, that is, to reach the MDG 1c target, has been almost met at the global level. More importantly, 72 of the 129 countries monitored for progress have reached the MDG target, 29 of which have also reached the more ambitious WFS goal by at least halving the number of undernourished people in their populations.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2015
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2015

Marked differences in progress occur not only among individual countries but also across regions and subregions. The prevalence of hunger has been reduced rapidly in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Asia, as well as in Latin America; in Northern Africa, a low level has been maintained throughout the MDG and WFS monitoring periods. Other regions, including the Caribbean, Oceania, and Western Asia, saw some overall progress but at a slower pace. In two regions, Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, progress has been slow overall, despite many success stories at country and subregional levels. In many countries that have achieved modest progress, factors such as war, civil unrest, and the displacement of refugees have often frustrated efforts to reduce hunger, sometimes even increasing the number of hungry people.

SOFI 2014 | Strengthening the enabling environment for Food Security and Nutrition

When the 69th United Nations General Assembly begins its General Debate on 23 September 2014, 464 days will remain until the end of 2015, the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

A stock-taking of where we stand on reducing hunger and malnutrition shows that progress in hunger reduction at the global level has continued, but food insecurity is still a challenge to be conquered.

The latest estimates show that, since 1990–92, the prevalence of undernourishment has fallen from 18.7 to 11.3 percent in 2012–14 for the world as a whole, and from 23.4 to 13.5 percent for the developing regions. The global MDG target 1c of reducing by half the proportion of undernourished people is within reach, if appropriate and immediate efforts are stepped up. Not only is MDG 1c within reach at the global level, but it has already been achieved by many countries. Sixty-three developing countries have already reached the target, 11 of which have maintained the prevalence of undernourishment below 5 percent since 1990–92, while another six are on track to do so by 2015. Twenty-five of the 63 countries have also accomplished the more ambitious 1996 World Food Summit (WFS) goal of halving the number of chronically underfed people.

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The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2014
El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2014

Since 1990–92, the number of hungry people has fallen by over 200 million. This is proof that we can win the war against hunger and should inspire countries to move forward, with the assistance of the international community as needed, by finding individual sets of action that respond to their national needs and specificities. This is the first step to achieving the other MDGs.

Despite this progress, however, the number of hungry people in the world is still unacceptably high: at least 805 million people, or one in nine, worldwide do not have enough to eat. Global trends in hunger reduction mask disparities within and among regions.

SOFI 2013 | The multiple dimensions of Food Security

Thirteen years ago, world leaders came together to adopt the United Nations Millennium Declaration. They committed their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and hunger, setting out a series of targets to be met by 2015, which have become known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These goals express the world’s commitment to improving the lives of billions of people and addressing development challenges.

Under MDG 1, which aims to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, the world sought to halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. With only two years remaining, 38 countries have reached this target, 18 of which have also achieved the even more stringent goal, established during the 1996 World Food Summit (WFS) in Rome, of halving the absolute number of hungry people in the same time period.

These successes demonstrate that, with political commitment, effective institutions, good policies, a comprehensive approach, and adequate levels of investment, we can win the fight against hunger and poverty, a necessary first step to arriving at the other development milestones set by the MDGs.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2013
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2013

As with every edition, the 2013 report of The State of Food Insecurity in the World updates progress towards the MDG and WFS hunger goals: globally, by region, and by individual country. For developing regions as a whole, the latest assessment suggests that further progress has been made towards the 2015 MDG target. The same progress, assessed against the more ambitious WFS goal, obviously appears much more modest. A total of 842 million people, or 12 percent of the world’s population, were experiencing chronic hunger in 2011–13, 26 million fewer than the number reported last year and down from 1,015 million in 1990–92.


SOFI 2012 | Economic growth is necessary but not suffcient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition

The 2012 edition of The State of Food Insecurity in the World focuses on the importance of economic growth in overcoming poverty, hunger, and malnutrition. We are pleased to note that many, though not all, developing countries have enjoyed remarkable rates of growth during recent decades. High growth rates of GDP per capita are a key factor in reducing food insecurity and malnutrition. However, economic growth per se does not guarantee success. As Jean Dreze and Amartya Sen stated recently, it “requires active public policies to ensure that the fruits of economic growth are widely shared, and also requires – and this is very important – making good use of the public revenue generated by fast economic growth for social services, especially for public healthcare and public education.” We fully agree.

There are still too many circumstances in which the poor do not sufficiently benefit from economic growth. This may happen because growth originates in sectors that do not generate sufficient employment for the poor, or because they lack secure and fair access to productive assets, in particular land, water, and credit. Or it may happen because the poor cannot immediately make use of the opportunities provided by growth as a result of undernutrition, low levels of education, ill health, age, or social discrimination.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2012
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2012

However, one lesson that we have learned from success stories coming from all developing regions is that investment in agriculture, more so than investment in other sectors, can generate economic growth that delivers large benefits to the poor, hungry, and malnourished. We recognize, nonetheless, that this is not universally true. With urbanization continuing in developing countries, future efforts to address poverty and food insecurity will have to focus also on urban areas. However, agriculture is still the dominant source of employment in the economies of many low-income countries, and the urban poor spend most of their income on food. Moreover, for the foreseeable future, the majority of the poor and hungry will continue to live in rural areas and depend directly or indirectly on investments in rural infrastructure and smallholder-based agriculture to improve their livelihoods.


SOFI 2011 | How does international price volatility affect domestic economies and Food Security?

Small import-dependent countries, especially in Africa, were deeply affected by the food and economic crises. Indeed, many countries are still in crisis in different parts of the world, particularly the Horn of Africa. These crises are challenging our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of reducing the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by half by 2015. Even if the MDG were to be achieved by 2015, some 600 million people in developing countries would still be undernourished. Having 600 million human beings suffering from hunger on a daily basis is never acceptable. The entire international community must act today, and act forcefully and responsibly, to banish food insecurity from the planet.

This edition of The State of Food Insecurity in the World focuses on food price volatility. Our organizations continue to monitor food prices and have alerted the world through a number of analytical reports on food price trends and ongoing volatility in recent years, as these continue to be a matter of concern for governments and people around the world. Indeed, high and volatile food prices are widely expected to continue in the future. Thus, we are pleased that in 2011 the Group of 20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G20) have been actively pursuing policy options for reducing food price volatility.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2011
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2011

By using previously unavailable data sources and studies, this report digs underneath the global-scale analyses to find out what happened in domestic markets and to draw lessons from the world food crisis of 2006–08. In particular, the report emphasizes that the impact of world price changes on household food security and nutrition is highly context-specific. The impact depends on the commodity, the national policies that affect price transmission from world markets to domestic markets, the demographic and production characteristics of different households, and a range of other factors. This diversity of impacts, both within and between countries, points to a need for improved data and analysis so that governments can implement better policies. Better and more predictable policies can not only reduce unwanted side effects on other countries but can simultaneously reduce food insecurity and domestic price volatility at home.

SOFI 2010 | Addressing Food Insecurity in protracted crises

The number of undernourished people in the world remains unacceptably high, near the one billion mark, despite an expected decline in 2010 for the first time since 1995. This decline is largely attributable to the increased economic growth foreseen in 2010—particularly in developing countries—and the fall in international food prices since 2008. The recent increase in food prices, if it persists, will create additional obstacles in the fight to further reduce hunger.

However, a total of 925 million people are still estimated to be undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16 percent of the population of developing countries. The fact that nearly a billion people remain hungry even after the recent food and financial crises have largely passed indicates a deeper structural problem that gravely threatens the ability to achieve internationally agreed goals on hunger reduction: the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and the 1996 World Food Summit goal. It is also evident that economic growth, while essential, will not be sufficient in itself to eliminate hunger within an acceptable period of time.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2010
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2010

This edition of The State of Food Insecurity in the World focuses on people living in a group of countries where the incidence of hunger is particularly high and persistent, and which face particular challenges in meeting the MDG targets—namely countries in protracted crisis. These countries are characterized by long-lasting or recurring crises, both natural and human-induced, and limited capacity to respond. In the 22 countries identified by this report as being in protracted crisis (or containing areas in protracted crisis), the most recent data show that more than 166 million people are undernourished, representing nearly 40 percent of the population of these countries and nearly 20 percent of all undernourished people in the world.

This unacceptably high degree of hunger results from many factors, including armed conflict and natural disasters, often in combination with weak governance or public administration, scarce resources, unsustainable livelihood systems, and the breakdown of local institutions.

SOFI 2009 | Economic crises – impacts and lessons learned

This report comes at a time of severe economic crisis. Countries across the globe are seeing their economies slow and recede. No nation is immune, and as usual, it is the poorest countries—and the poorest people—that are suffering the most. As a result of the economic crisis, estimates reported in this edition of The State of Food Insecurity in the World show that, for the first time since 1970, more than one billion people—about 100 million more than last year and around one-sixth of all humanity—are hungry and undernourished worldwide.

The current crisis is historically unprecedented, with several factors converging to make it particularly damaging to people at risk of food insecurity. First, it overlaps with a food crisis that in 2006–08 pushed the prices of basic staples beyond the reach of millions of poor people. Although they have retreated from their mid-2008 highs, international food commodity prices remain high by recent historical standards and volatile. Domestic prices have been slower to fall. At the end of 2008, domestic staple food prices remained, on average, 17 percent higher in real terms than two years earlier. The price increases had forced many poor families to sell assets or sacrifice health care, education, or food just to stay afloat. With their resources stretched to the breaking point, those households will find it difficult to ride out the economic storm.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2009
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2009

Second, the crisis is affecting large parts of the world simultaneously. Previous economic crises that hit developing countries tended to be confined to individual countries or several countries in a particular region. In such situations, affected countries made recourse to various instruments such as currency devaluation, borrowing, or increased use of official assistance to face the effects of the crisis. In a global crisis, the scope of such instruments becomes more limited.

Third, with developing countries today more financially and commercially integrated into the world economy than they were 20 years ago, they are far more exposed to shocks in international markets. Indeed, many countries have experienced across-the-board drops in their trade and financial inflows and have seen their export earnings, foreign investment, development aid, and remittances falling.

SOFI 2008 | High food prices and food security – threats and opportunities

Millions More Food-Insecure – Urgent Action and Substantial Investments Needed

Soaring food prices have triggered worldwide concern about threats to global food security, shaking the unjustified complacency created by many years of low commodity prices. From 3 to 5 June 2008, representatives of 180 countries plus the European Union, including many Heads of State and Government, met in Rome to express their conviction “that the international community needs to take urgent and coordinated action to combat the negative impacts of soaring food prices on the world’s most vulnerable countries and populations”. At the G8 Summit in Japan in July 2008, the leaders of the world’s most industrialized nations voiced their deep concern “that the steep rise in global food prices, coupled with availability problems in a number of developing countries, is threatening global food security”.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2008
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2008

Moving Away from Hunger Reduction Goals

The concerns of the international community are well founded. For the first time since FAO started monitoring undernourishment trends, the number of chronically hungry people is higher in the most recent period relative to the base period. FAO estimates that, mainly as a result of high food prices, the number of chronically hungry people in the world rose by 75 million in 2007 to reach 923 million.

The devastating effects of high food prices on the number of hungry people compound already worrisome long-term trends. Our analysis shows that in 2003–05, before the recent rise in food prices, there were 6 million more chronically hungry people in the world than in 1990–92, the baseline period against which progress towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Summit hunger reduction targets is measured. Early gains in hunger reduction achieved in a number of developing regions by the mid-1990s have not been sustained. Hunger has increased as the world has grown richer and produced more food than ever in the last decade.

SOFI 2006 | Eradicating world hunger– taking stock ten years after the World Food Summit

Despite Setbacks, the Race Against Hunger Can Be Won

In November 1996, the world turned its attention to Rome, where heads of state and government from more than 180 nations attending the World Food Summit (WFS) pledged to eradicate one of the worst scourges weighing on society’s collective conscience: hunger. As an important step towards this noble and long overdue objective, world leaders committed themselves to what was considered an ambitious but attainable intermediate target: to halve by 2015 the number of undernourished people in the world from the 1990 level. Ten years later, we are confronted with the sad reality that virtually no progress has been made toward that objective. Compared with 1990–92, the number of undernourished people in developing countries has declined by a meager 3 million—a number within the bounds of statistical error. This is the situation facing representatives of the Committee on World Food Security, meeting in Rome this year to take stock of progress and setbacks experienced since the Summit and to propose further action.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2006
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2006

Not all news is dismal, however. Despite disappointing performances in reducing the number of hungry people, a smaller percentage of the populations of developing countries is undernourished today compared with 1990–92: 17 percent against 20 percent. Furthermore, FAO’s projections suggest that the proportion of hungry people in developing countries in 2015 could be about half of what it was in 1990–92: a drop from 20 to 10 percent. This means that the world is on a path toward meeting the Millennium Development Goal on hunger reduction. The same projections, however, also indicate that the WFS target could be missed: some 582 million people could still be undernourished in 2015 versus 412 million if the WFS goal were to be met.

The news cannot come as a surprise. Time and again, through The State of Food Insecurity in the World as well as other channels, FAO has pointed out that insufficient progress is being made in alleviating hunger.

SOFI 2005 | Eradicating world hunger – key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals

Towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goal Targets: Food Comes First

We pledge our political will and our common and national commitment to achieving food security for all and to an ongoing effort to eradicate hunger in all countries, with an immediate view to reducing the number of undernourished people to half their present level no later than 2015.” (Rome Declaration, 1996)

We will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty …”. (Millennium Declaration, 2000)

Only ten years remain before the 2015 deadline by which world leaders have pledged to reduce hunger and extreme poverty by half and to make substantial gains in education, health, social equity, environmental sustainability, and international solidarity. Without stronger commitment and more rapid progress, most of those goals will not be met.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2005
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2005

If each of the developing regions continues to reduce hunger at the current pace, only South America and the Caribbean will reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of cutting the proportion of hungry people by half. None will reach the more ambitious World Food Summit (WFS) goal of halving the number of hungry people. Progress towards the other MDG targets has also lagged, particularly in the countries and regions where efforts to reduce hunger have stalled, as the accompanying graph clearly illustrates.

Most, if not all, of the WFS and MDG targets can still be reached. But only if efforts are redoubled and refocused. And only by recognizing and acting on two key points:

SOFI 2004 | Monitoring progress towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goals

Towards the World Food Summit Target: Confronting the Crippling Costs of Hunger

As we approach the mid-term review of progress towards the World Food Summit (WFS) goal, FAO’s latest report on the state of food insecurity in the world highlights three irrefutable facts and three inescapable conclusions:

Fact number one: to date, efforts to reduce chronic hunger in the developing world have fallen far short of the pace required to cut the number of hungry people by half no later than the year 2015 (see graph). We must do better.

Fact number two: despite slow and faltering progress on a global scale, numerous countries in all regions of the developing world have proven that success is possible. More than 30 countries, with a total population of over 2.2 billion people, have reduced the prevalence of undernourishment by 25 percent and have made significant progress towards reducing the number of hungry people by half by the year 2015. We can do better.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2004
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2004

Fact number three: the costs of not taking immediate and strenuous action to reduce hunger at comparable rates worldwide are staggering. This is the central message I would like to convey to readers of this report. Every year that hunger continues at present levels costs more than 5 million children their lives and costs developing countries billions of dollars in lost productivity and earnings. The costs of interventions that could sharply reduce hunger are trivial in comparison. We cannot afford not to do better.

We MUST Do Better

According to FAO’s latest estimates, the number of hungry people in the developing world has declined by only 9 million since the WFS

SOFI 2001 | Food Insecurity: when people must live with hunger and fear starvation

Rallying Political Will and Resources to “Get Back on Track”

The tragedy of hunger in the midst of plenty is still a stark reality in today’s world. In virtually every country, there are groups of people who cannot realize their full human potential, either because their diets are inadequate or, because of sickness, their bodies are unable to benefit fully from the food they consume. In the poorest countries, the majority of people are affected by hunger, greatly magnifying the dimensions of other correctable defects in efforts to meet basic human needs.

“The State of Food Insecurity in the World” monitors the progress made each year towards fulfillment of the basic right of all human beings to live without fear of hunger or malnutrition. This third issue conveys a mixed message: progress has been made in reducing the absolute number of hungry people in the world, but this is not happening fast enough to achieve the 1996 World Food Summit target – that of halving the number of hungry people by 2015. A report on progress towards this goal is especially important in 2001, in view of the follow-up event, the World Food Summit: five years later, called by FAO for November 2001 to encourage national leaders to review as a matter of urgency the rate of improvement in food security and to take corrective action where needed.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2001
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2001

Over the past decade, the total number of chronically undernourished in the developing world has fallen by approximately 40 million but the average rate of decline has continued to slow, reaching only 6 million a year, compared with the 8 million reported in the 1999 issue of this publication. Consequently, the annual reduction required to reach the target by 2015 has grown from 20 to 22 million people per year. Hence the gap – between reductions realized and reductions needed – is widening. Continuing at the current rate, it would take more than 60 years to reach the target.


SOFI 2000 | Food Insecurity: when people must live with hunger and fear starvation

Within every society, rich and poor, there are children too hungry to concentrate in school, underweight mothers who give birth to sickly children, and chronically hungry adults who lack the energy to raise their families above the subsistence level. Where hunger is widespread, it is also a basic development issue impeding national economic growth and keeping millions trapped in poverty.

The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) was created to track progress towards ending this profound obstacle to human rights, quality of life, and dignity. It was spurred by the 1996 World Food Summit in Rome, where leaders of 186 countries pledged to reduce by half the number of hungry people in the world by 2015.

In this, the second edition, we introduce a new tool for measuring the severity of want: the depth of hunger. This is a measure of the per-person food deficit of the undernourished population within each country. Measured in kilocalories, it aims to assess just how empty people’s plates are each day.

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          The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2000
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 2000

Measurements of the depth of hunger demonstrate that undernourishment is far more debilitating in some places than in others. In the industrialized countries, hungry people lack 130 kilocalories per day on average, while in five of the poorest countries, the daily food deficit is more than three times that, 450 kilocalories. Most of the countries with the most extreme depth of hunger (more than 300 kilocalories per person per day) are located in Africa; others are found in the Near East (Afghanistan), the Caribbean (Haiti), and Asia (Bangladesh, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and Mongolia). Many of these countries face extraordinary obstacles such as conflict or recurrent natural disasters. They require special attention to lift them out of their current state of deep poverty and dire food insecurity.

SOFI 2000 also updates the estimate of the number of undernourished people. And I am disturbed to report that we find no significant change

SOFI 1999 | Food Insecurity: when people must live with hunger and fear starvation

Three years ago, leaders from 186 countries gathered in Rome and made a solemn commitment – to halve the number of hungry people by the year 2015. Is the world living up to the promise it made at the 1996 World Food Summit?

New estimates for 1995/97 show that around 790 million people in the developing world do not have enough to eat. This is more than the total populations of North America and Europe combined. The “continent” of the hungry includes men, women, and children who may never reach their full physical and mental potential because they do not have enough to eat – many of them may even die because they have been denied the basic human right to food. This state of affairs is unacceptable.

Yes, the number of undernourished people has decreased by 40 million since 1990/92, the period to which the estimates of 830 to 840 million cited at the Summit refer. But we cannot afford to be complacent. A closer look at the data reveals that in the first half of this decade, a group of only 37 countries achieved reductions totaling 100 million. Across the rest of the developing world, the number of hungry people actually increased by almost 60 million.

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The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 1999
          El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 1999

The current rate of progress – an average reduction of around 8 million a year – falls squarely within the trajectory of “business as usual.” If the pace is not stepped up, more than 600 million people will still go to sleep hungry in developing countries in 2015. To achieve the Summit goal, a much faster rate of progress is required, averaging reductions of at least 20 million a year in the developing world.

Hunger is often associated with developing countries. While that is true, this report provides statistical evidence that the problem is not limited to developing countries. For the first time, FAO presents aggregate estimates of the number of undernourished in developed countries. The resulting figure, 34 million people, confirms that even developed countries are confronted with the challenge of overcoming food insecurity.


Este relatório é uma visão anual abrangente dos tópicos relacionados com o duplo mandato da FAO. Coloca forte ênfase em áreas de desenvolvimento emergentes, como os sistemas agroalimentares e as tecnologias digitais na agricultura.


SOFA 2023 | Revealing the true Cost of Food to transform Agrifood Systems

In the face of escalating global challenges—lack of food availability, food accessibility, and food affordability due to the climate crisis, biodiversity loss, economic slowdowns and downturns, worsening poverty, and other overlapping crises—we find ourselves standing at a critical juncture. The choices we make now, the priorities we set, and the solutions we implement will determine the trajectory of our shared future. Consequently, the decisions we make about global agrifood systems must acknowledge these interrelated challenges.

There is increased international consensus that transforming agrifood systems to increase their efficiency, inclusiveness, resilience, and sustainability is an essential comprehensive design for realizing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Momentum for change led to the first-ever United Nations Food Systems Summit (UNFSS), convened by the UN Secretary-General (UNSG) in September 2021, followed by the UN Food Systems Summit +2 Stocktaking Moment (UNFSS+2), hosted by the Italian Government in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in late July 2023. These meetings highlighted strong political will and stakeholder support for innovative solutions and strategies to transform agrifood systems and leverage those changes to deliver progress on all the Sustainable Development Goals.

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          The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2023
          El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación (SOFA) 2023

To achieve these goals, including FAO’s vision to transform agrifood systems for better production, better nutrition, a better environment, and a better life for all, leaving no one behind, it is vital that the impacts of our actions within these systems be transparent. FAO is responding to this essential need by dedicating two consecutive issues of The State of Food and Agriculture—for the first time since this flagship publication was launched in 1947—to uncovering the true impacts, both positive and negative, of global agrifood systems for informed decision-making.

This year’s report introduces true cost accounting (TCA) as an approach to uncovering the hidden impacts of our agrifood systems on the environment, health, and livelihoods, so that agrifood systems actors are better informed and prepared before making decisions.

SOFA 2022 | Leveraging automation in Agriculture for transforming Agrifood Systems

This report dives deep into a reality of agriculture: the sector is undergoing profound technological change at an accelerating pace. New technologies, unimaginable just a few years ago, are rapidly emerging. In livestock production, for example, technologies based on electronic tagging of animals – including milking robots and poultry feeding systems – are increasingly adopted in some countries. Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) guidance allows automated crop production, involving the use of autosteer for tractors, fertilizer spreaders, and pesticide sprayers. Even more advanced technologies are now coming onto the market in all sectors. In crop production, autonomous machines such as weeding robots are starting to be commercialized, while uncrewed aerial vehicles (commonly called drones) gather information for both crop management and input application. In aquaculture, automated feeding and monitoring technologies are increasingly adopted. In forestry, machinery for log cutting and transportation is currently a major aim of automation efforts. Many of the most recent technologies facilitate precision agriculture, a management strategy that uses information to optimize input and resource use.

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          The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2022
          El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación (SOFA) 2022

Recent technological developments may astound and amaze, inspiring the desire to learn more. However, it is important to remember that technological change is not a new phenomenon and, crucially, not all agrifood systems actors have access to it. FAO has been studying this subject for decades. What we see today is no more than a consolidation point – for now – of a lengthy process of technological change in agriculture that has been accelerating over the last two centuries.

This process has increased productivity, reduced drudgery in farm work, freed up labor for other activities, and ultimately improved livelihoods and human well-being. Machinery and equipment have improved and sometimes taken over the three key steps involved in any agricultural operation: diagnosis, decision-making, and performing. The historical evolution exhibits five technology categories: the introduction of manual tools; the use of animal traction; motorized mechanization since the 1910s; the adoption of digital equipment since the 1980s; and, more recently, the introduction of robotics. What is referred to as automation in this report really begins with motorized mechanization, which has greatly automated the performing component of agricultural operations.

SOFA 2021 | Making Agrifood Systems more resilient to shocks and stresses

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had profound impacts on all our lives, and we continue to struggle with it. Border closures and curfews to contain the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus stopped international travel, shut down countless businesses, and left millions of people unemployed. Restrictions on the movement of people and goods, particularly in the initial stages of the pandemic, impeded the flow of inputs to farmers and of their produce to markets. Where harvesting and transport were blocked, huge quantities of fresh fruits and vegetables were left to decay in farmers’ fields. Restrictions have harmed not only agrifood trade, agrifood supply chains, and agrifood markets, but also people’s lives, livelihoods, and nutrition.

After initial disruptions and uncertainty, many supply chains showed a remarkable degree of resilience in absorbing and adapting to the shock caused by the pandemic; however, lack of access to adequate food for millions of people emerged as a huge and persistent problem. Many rural people were unable to travel for seasonal work – an important source of income in poor communities. Immobilized by lockdowns, low-income urban households saw their incomes and spending on food fall sharply.

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          The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2021
          El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación (SOFA) 2021

Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, the world was not on track to meet the shared commitment to end global hunger and malnutrition in all its forms by 2030, but the pandemic has sent us even further off track. This year’s State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World estimates that between 720 and 811 million people were affected by hunger in 2020, up to 161 million more than in 2019, with the increase largely propelled by the COVID-19 crisis. Tragically, women and children have often borne the brunt of the crisis. According to the Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020, the disruption of health services and access to adequate food has added to the toll of under-five and maternal deaths. The United Nations’ Policy Brief: The Impact of COVID-19 on Food Security and Nutrition suggests that 370 million children have been denied school meals owing to school closures. There is no doubt that the impact of the pandemic on food security and nutrition will be felt for many years.

SOFA 2020 | Overcoming Water challenges in Agriculture

Our very existence depends on water – water to drink and water to grow food. Agriculture relies on freshwater from rivers, lakes, and aquifers. Rainfed agriculture and much of livestock production depend on water from limited rainfall. Moreover, water-related ecosystems also sustain livelihoods, food security, and nutrition by supporting inland fisheries and aquaculture. Supplies of uncontaminated freshwater are needed for safe drinking water and to ensure hygiene and food safety standards to guarantee human health. In addition, water has numerous other uses and supports other human activities.

Against this backdrop, it is clear that water underpins many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG 6, in particular, seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Unfortunately, this report shows that achieving this objective by 2030 will be a challenge. The need to “produce more with less” is underscored by the fact that, with a growing population, the freshwater resources available per person have declined by more than 20 percent in the last two decades. As demand rises, freshwater becomes increasingly scarce, competition for it intensifies, and excessive water withdrawals threaten water-related ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide.

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          The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2020
          El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación (SOFA) 2020

Agriculture has an important role to play on the path to sustainability, as irrigated agriculture accounts for more than 70 percent of global water withdrawals, and globally, 41 percent of withdrawals are not compatible with sustaining ecosystem services. Rainfed agriculture is called on to complement irrigation from scarce freshwater resources, yet rainwater also arrives in finite amounts. In addition, climate change is already seriously disrupting rainfall patterns. Increased drought frequency and consequent water shortages in rainfed agriculture represent significant risks to livelihoods and food security, particularly for the most vulnerable populations in the least developed parts of the world.

We must take very seriously both water scarcity (the imbalance between supply and demand for freshwater resources) and water shortages

SOFA 2019 | Moving forward on Food Loss and Waste Reduction

I am heartened to see that the world is paying more attention to the issue of food loss and waste and is calling for more decisive action to address it. The growing awareness and increase in calls for action are rooted in the strong negative moral connotations associated with food loss and waste. These are partly based on the fact that losing food implies unnecessary pressure on the environment and the natural resources that have been used to produce it in the first place. It essentially means that land and water resources have been wasted, pollution created, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted to no purpose. I also frequently wonder how we can allow food to be thrown away when more than 820 million people in the world continue to go hungry every day.

International attention on the issue of food loss and waste is firmly reflected in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Specifically, Target 12.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which embody this agenda, calls for the halving by 2030 of per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and the reduction of food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses.

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          The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2019
          El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación (SOFA) 2019

Many countries are already taking action to reduce food loss and waste, but the challenges ahead remain significant and we need to step up efforts. Furthermore, as this report argues, efforts to meet SDG Target 12.3 could contribute to meeting other SDG targets, not least that of achieving Zero Hunger, in line with the integrated nature of the 2030 Agenda.

However, as we strive to make progress towards reducing food loss and waste, we can only be truly effective if our efforts are informed by a solid understanding of the problem. Three dimensions need to be considered. Firstly, we need to know – as accurately as possible – how much food is lost and wasted, as well as where and why. Secondly, we need to be clear about our underlying reasons or objectives for reducing food loss and waste – be they related to food security or the environment. Thirdly, we need to understand how food loss and waste, as well as the measures to reduce it, affect the objectives being pursued.

SOFA 2018 | Migration, Agriculture and Rural Development

Few issues attract as much attention or are subject to as much controversy in international and domestic policy debates today as migration. Growing concerns over the increasingly large numbers of migrants and refugees moving across borders have directed most of this attention towards international migration, which has made it to the top of the international policy agenda. The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) it embraces clearly recognize the importance of migration, the challenges it poses, and the opportunities it provides. SDG Target 10.7 calls for facilitating orderly, safe, and responsible migration. It is significant that this call is placed within the context of SDG 10, which aims at reducing inequality within and among countries. This constitutes a clear recognition of the positive side of migration and the role it can play in reducing inequalities. Furthermore, in September 2016 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, taking another step forward by launching the process of developing two Global Compacts for safe, orderly, and regular migration and on refugees, respectively.

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          The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2018
          El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación (SOFA) 2018

Unfortunately, much of the debate on migration focuses on its negative sides. The complexity of the phenomenon tends to be overlooked, and the opportunities presented are not fully recognized. In his report “Making Migration Work for All,” the United Nations Secretary-General acknowledges the widespread existence of “xenophobic political narratives about migration” and calls for a respectful and realistic debate on migration. He also draws attention to the role of migration as “an engine of economic growth, innovation, and sustainable development.” The basic challenge, according to the UN Secretary-General, is to maximize the benefits of migration while ensuring that it is never an act of desperation.

In order to arrive at a more realistic and dispassionate debate on the issue, there is a need to truly understand migration: what it is, what its magnitude is, what drives it, and what the impacts are. Only through such an enhanced understanding will we be able to put in place the best policy responses to the challenges it poses and the opportunities it presents.

SOFA 2017 | Leveraging Food Systems for Inclusive Rural Transformation

In adopting the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development two years ago, the international community committed itself to eradicating hunger and poverty and achieving other important goals, including making agriculture sustainable, securing healthy lives and decent work for all, reducing inequality, and making economic growth inclusive. With just 13 years remaining before the 2030 deadline, concerted action is needed now if the Sustainable Development Goals are to be reached.

There could be no clearer wake-up call than FAO’s new estimate that the number of chronically undernourished people in the world stands at 815 million. Most of the hungry live in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, many of which have yet to make the necessary headway towards the structural transformation of their economies. Successful transformations in other developing countries were driven by agricultural productivity growth, leading to a shift of people and resources from agriculture towards manufacturing, industry, and services, massive increases in per capita income, and steep reductions in poverty and hunger.

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          The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2017
          El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación (SOFA) 2017

Countries lagging behind in this transformation process are mainly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Most have in common economies with large shares of employment in agriculture, widespread hunger and malnutrition, and high levels of poverty.

According to the latest estimates, some 1.75 billion people in low-income and lower-middle-income countries survive on less than US$3.10 a day, and more than 580 million are chronically undernourished. The prospects for eradicating hunger and poverty in these countries are overshadowed by the low productivity of subsistence agriculture, limited scope for industrialization and – above all – by rapid rates of population growth and explosive urbanization. Between 2015 and 2030, their total population is expected to grow by 25 percent, from 3.5 billion to almost 4.5 billion. Their urban populations will grow at double that pace, from 1.3 billion to 2 billion. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people aged 15–24 years is expected to increase by more than 90 million by 2030, and most will be in rural areas.

SOFA 2016 | Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security

Following last year’s historic Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – marking a path towards a more sustainable future – 2016 is about putting commitments into action. The rapid change in the world’s climate is translating into more extreme and frequent weather events, heat waves, droughts, and sea-level rise.

The impacts of climate change on agriculture and the implications for food security are already alarming – they are the subjects of this report. A major finding is that there is an urgent need to support smallholders in adapting to climate change. Farmers, pastoralists, fisherfolk, and community foresters depend on activities that are intimately and inextricably linked to climate – and these groups are also the most vulnerable to climate change. They will require far greater access to technologies, markets, information, and credit for investment to adjust their production systems and practices to climate change.

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          The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2016
          El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación (SOFA) 2016

Unless action is taken now to make agriculture more sustainable, productive, and resilient, climate change impacts will seriously compromise food production in countries and regions that are already highly food-insecure. These impacts will jeopardize progress towards the key Sustainable Development Goals of ending hunger and poverty by 2030; beyond 2030, their increasingly negative impacts on agriculture will be widespread.

Through its impacts on agriculture, livelihoods, and infrastructure, climate change threatens all dimensions of food security. It will expose both urban and rural poor to higher and more volatile food prices. It will also affect food availability by reducing the productivity of crops, livestock, and fisheries, and hinder access to food by disrupting the livelihoods of millions of rural people who depend on agriculture for their incomes. Hunger, poverty, and climate change need to be tackled together. This is, not least, a moral imperative as those who are now suffering most have contributed least to the changing climate.